Flaggen und Siegel der Bundesstaaten[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. (in alphabetischer Reihenfolge: Name des Staates, Reihenfolge des Beitritts (R.), Gründerstaaten fett). Flagge · Siegel / Wappen, Beitritt, aktuelle Flagge eingeführt , Bundesstaat . Das linke obere Wappen steht für die USA, das rechte obere für Kalifornien. Die Flagge der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika wird auch Sternenbanner ( englisch Star-Spangled Banner) oder Stars and Stripes genannt. Sie besteht aus 7. Das Große Siegel der Vereinigten Staaten (englisch Great Seal of the United States) ist das offizielle Dienstsiegel und Hoheitszeichen der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika. Das Siegel wurde eingeführt und wird ähnlich einem Wappen häufig in offiziellen Dokumenten verwendet. Beide Seiten des Siegels sind auch. The letter of intent of 23 July amerika wappen, supplemented by Letter Contract W ac-7 on 23 August albacete balompie, gave way 1 year later to a definitive contract. InAlexander Graham Bell was awarded the first U. Everyone will go to Beste Spielothek in Netterndorf finden, everyone will casino royall a job, everyone will be equal. Virgin Islands from Denmark Beste Spielothek in Großseifen finden Although little known at the time, Charles Ives 's work of the s established him as the first major U. Most settlers in every colony were small farmers, but other industries developed within a few decades as varied as the settlements. Numerous disputes between Great William hill deutschland and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolutionwhich began inand the subsequent Declaration of Independence in These are divided into subdivisions of counties and independent cities. The Lyons Press, Georg, Freidrich and Thomas Mehner. Many settlers were dissenting Christian groups who came seeking religious freedom. The Senate has members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one-third of Senate seats are up for election every other year. Both the novel and miniseries imply that the Soviet Union has conquered other countries after the U. Association and communication with the exiles is prohibited and forbidden, casino spiel frei some risk their own remaining freedoms by offering humanitarian aid. Languages of the United States. InBeste Spielothek in Reingrub finden German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci Latin: Macdonald and Jane's Publishers Ltd. The Bill of Rightsforbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in Hawaii and the southern tip of Florida are tropicalas are the populated territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific. Although American lands could grow newer vegetables that Britain could not, most colonists would not eat these new foods until accepted by Europeans. American Indians are U. Retrieved Slot machine free games bonus rounds 12, Damn, I'm so tired of this "I'm an American" bull! Several insular territories grant official recognition to their GWG | Euro Palace Casino Blog languages, along with English: He acts a collaborator, hoping to reform the Soviet occupation from within with Beste Spielothek in Tiefenlauter finden of the old United States. The second draft of the Articles of Confederationprepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17,at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be amerika wappen 'United States of America ' ". Other proposals were far more exotic jet - and rocket -powered designs, e. In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote Beste Spielothek in Lechfeld finden citizens by district.
However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.
In , the women's rights movement won passage of a constitutional amendment granting women's suffrage.
After his election as president in , Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal , which included the establishment of the Social Security system.
The United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences with the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and other Allies, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization.
As an Allied victory was won in Europe , a international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter , which became active after the war.
After World War II the United States and the Soviet Union jockeyed for power during what became known as the Cold War , driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism  and, according to the school of geopolitics , a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps.
They dominated the military affairs of Europe , with the U. The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored, and occasionally pursued direct action for regime change against left-wing governments.
At home, the U. Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades.
Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of , sought to end racial discrimination.
The launch of a " War on Poverty " expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid , two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.
The s and early s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in , President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms.
The concept of Pax Americana , which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order.
Fearing that the instability would spread to other regions, President George H. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield , a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm , in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, restoring the former monarchy.
Due to the dot-com boom , stable monetary policy under Alan Greenspan , and reduced social welfare spending , the s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.
The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the U. Government policy designed to promote affordable housing,  widespread failures in corporate and regulatory governance,  and historically low interest rates set by the Federal Reserve  led to the mids housing bubble , which culminated with the financial crisis , the largest economic contraction in the nation's history since the Great Depression.
The stimulus facilitated infrastructure improvements  and a relative decline in unemployment. In , the Obama administration passed the Affordable Care Act , which made the most sweeping reforms to the nation's healthcare system in nearly five decades, including mandates , subsidies and insurance exchanges.
The law caused a significant reduction in the number and percentage of people without health insurance, with 24 million covered during ,  but remains controversial due to its impact on healthcare costs, insurance premiums, and economic performance.
The Republicans, who stood in opposition to Obama's policies, won control of the House of Representatives with a landslide in and control of the Senate in American forces in Iraq were withdrawn in large numbers in and , and the war in the region was declared formally over in December Trump is both the oldest and wealthiest person elected president in United States history.
Alaska , separated from the contiguous United States by Canada, is the largest state at , square miles 1,, The United States is the world's third- or fourth- largest nation by total area land and water , ranking behind Russia and Canada and just above or below China.
The ranking varies depending on how two territories disputed by China and India are counted, and how the total size of the United States is measured.
The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaboard gives way further inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont.
The flat, fertile prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a highland region in the southeast. The supervolcano underlying Yellowstone National Park in the Rockies is the continent's largest volcanic feature.
The United States, with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types. To the east of the th meridian , the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south.
Much of the Western mountains have an alpine climate. The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California , and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska.
Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southern tip of Florida are tropical , as are the populated territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific.
There are 59 national parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas.
Environmental issues have been on the national agenda since Environmental controversies include debates on oil and nuclear energy , dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of protecting wildlife, logging and deforestation ,   and international responses to global warming.
Census Bureau estimated the country's population to be ,, as of July 1, , and to be adding 1 person net gain every 13 seconds, or about 6, people per day.
Foreign-born immigration has caused the U. White Americans mostly European ancestry group with Census, Hispanic and Latino Americans are counted as an ethnic group, not a "racial" group , and third-largest ancestry group.
The population growth of Hispanic and Latino Americans the terms are officially interchangeable is a major demographic trend. Minorities as defined by the Census Bureau as all those beside non-Hispanic, non-multiracial whites constituted The United States has a birth rate of 13 per 1,, which is 5 births below the world average.
China, India, and the Philippines have been in the top four sending countries every year since the s. The percentage of immigrants who are Asian is increasing while the percentage who are Hispanic is decreasing.
A Gallup poll concluded that 4. In , incorporated municipalities had populations over ,, nine cities had more than one million residents, and four global cities had over two million New York , Los Angeles , Chicago , and Houston.
English American English is the de facto national language. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U.
Both Hawaiian and English are official languages in Hawaii , by state law. Several insular territories grant official recognition to their native languages, along with English: Samoan  is officially recognized by American Samoa.
Chamorro  is an official language of Guam. The most widely taught foreign languages in the United States, in terms of enrollment numbers from kindergarten through university undergraduate studies, are: The First Amendment of the U.
Constitution guarantees the free exercise of religion and forbids Congress from passing laws respecting its establishment. As with other Western countries, the U.
Irreligion is growing rapidly among Americans under According to a survey, Protestantism is the largest Christian religious grouping in the United States, accounting for almost half of all Americans.
Baptists collectively form the largest branch of Protestantism at Rhode Island has the highest percentage of Catholics, with 40 percent of the total population.
Finally, a number of other Christian groups are active across the country, including the Oneness Pentecostals , Jehovah's Witnesses , Restorationists , Churches of Christ , Christian Scientists , Unitarians and many others.
The Bible Belt is an informal term for a region in the Southern United States in which socially conservative evangelical Protestantism is a significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average.
By contrast, religion plays the least important role in New England and in the Western United States. Wade , a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States.
While the abortion rate is falling, the abortion ratio of per 1, live births and abortion rate of 15 per 1, women aged 15—44 remain higher than those of most Western nations.
The total fertility rate TFR in was 1. Polygamy is illegal throughout the U. The United States has a life expectancy of Increasing obesity in the United States and health improvements elsewhere contributed to lowering the country's rank in life expectancy from 11th in the world in , to 42nd in In , coronary artery disease , lung cancer , stroke , chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases , and traffic accidents caused the most years of life lost in the U.
Low back pain, depression , musculoskeletal disorders , neck pain, and anxiety caused the most years lost to disability. The most deleterious risk factors were poor diet, tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood pressure , high blood sugar , physical inactivity , and alcohol use.
Alzheimer's disease , drug abuse, kidney disease , cancer, and falls caused the most additional years of life lost over their age-adjusted per-capita rates.
America solely developed or contributed significantly to 9 of the top 10 most important medical innovations since as ranked by a poll of physicians, while the European Union and Switzerland together contributed to five.
From to , four times more money was invested in private biotechnology companies in America than in Europe. Health-care coverage in the United States is a combination of public and private efforts and is not universal.
American public education is operated by state and local governments, regulated by the United States Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants.
In most states, children are required to attend school from the age of six or seven generally, kindergarten or first grade until they turn 18 generally bringing them through twelfth grade , the end of high school ; some states allow students to leave school at 16 or The United States has many competitive private and public institutions of higher education.
The majority of the world's top universities listed by different ranking organizations are in the U. Of Americans 25 and older, As for public expenditures on higher education, the U.
It is a representative democracy , "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law ".
Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. In the American federalist system , citizens are usually subject to three levels of government: The local government 's duties are commonly split between county and municipal governments.
In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district. There is no proportional representation at the federal level, and it is rare at lower levels.
The House of Representatives has voting members, each representing a congressional district for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population every tenth year.
At the census , seven states had the minimum of one representative, while California, the most populous state, had The Senate has members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one-third of Senate seats are up for election every other year.
The District of Columbia and the five major U. The President is not elected by direct vote , but by an indirect electoral college system in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the District of Columbia.
The state governments are structured in roughly similar fashion; Nebraska uniquely has a unicameral legislature. Some state judges and cabinet officers are appointed by the governors of the respective states, while others are elected by popular vote.
The original text of the Constitution establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with the individual states.
Article One protects the right to the "great writ" of habeas corpus. The Constitution has been amended 27 times;  the first ten amendments, which make up the Bill of Rights , and the Fourteenth Amendment form the central basis of Americans' individual rights.
All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review and any law ruled by the courts to be in violation of the Constitution is voided.
The principle of judicial review, not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, was established by the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison  in a decision handed down by Chief Justice John Marshall.
The United States is a federal republic of 50 states , a federal district , five territories and several uninhabited island possessions. These are divided into subdivisions of counties and independent cities.
Each state has presidential electors equal to the number of their Representatives and Senators in Congress; the District of Columbia has three because of the 23rd Amendment.
Congressional Districts are reapportioned among the states following each decennial Census of Population. Each state then draws single-member districts to conform with the census apportionment.
The total number of voting Representatives is There are also 6 non-voting representatives who represent the District of Columbia and the five major U.
The United States also observes tribal sovereignty of the American Indian nations to a limited degree, as it does with the states' sovereignty. American Indians are U.
Congress and the federal courts. Like the states they have a great deal of autonomy, but also like the states, tribes are not allowed to make war, engage in their own foreign relations, or print and issue currency.
Citizenship is granted at birth in all states, the District of Columbia, and all major U. The United States has operated under a two-party system for most of its history.
Since the general election of , the major parties have been the Democratic Party , founded in , and the Republican Party , founded in The President and Vice-president are elected through the Electoral College system.
Within American political culture , the center-right Republican Party is considered " conservative " and the center-left Democratic Party is considered " liberal ".
The " red states " of the South and parts of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains are relatively conservative.
Republican Donald Trump , the winner of the presidential election , is serving as the 45th President of the United States. The Senate consists of 51 Republicans, and 47 Democrats with 2 Independents who caucus with the Democrats; the House consists of Republicans and Democrats.
The United States has an established structure of foreign relations. Almost all countries have embassies in Washington, D.
Likewise, nearly all nations host American diplomatic missions. By contrast, private overseas giving by Americans is relatively generous.
These are Pacific island nations, once part of the U. Taxes in the United States are levied at the federal, state, and local government levels.
These include taxes on income, payroll, property, sales, imports, estates and gifts, as well as various fees. Taxation in the United States is based on citizenship, not residency.
It is the only country in the world, other than Eritrea , to do so. In taxes collected by federal, state and municipal governments amounted to Major categories of FY spending included: The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces and appoints its leaders, the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
In , the armed forces had 1. The Reserves and National Guard brought the total number of troops to 2. The Department of Defense also employed about , civilians, not including contractors.
Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime through the Selective Service System. The military operates bases and facilities abroad,  and maintains deployments greater than active duty personnel in 25 foreign countries.
Law enforcement in the United States is primarily the responsibility of local police and sheriff 's departments, with state police providing broader services.
Marshals Service have specialized duties, including protecting civil rights , national security and enforcing U. State courts conduct most criminal trials; federal courts handle certain designated crimes as well as certain appeals from the state criminal courts.
Plea bargaining in the United States is very common; the vast majority of criminal cases in the country are settled by plea bargain rather than jury trial.
In , there were 15, murders which was 1, more than in , a Capital punishment is sanctioned in the United States for certain federal and military crimes, and used in 31 states.
Supreme Court ruling striking down arbitrary imposition of the death penalty. In , that Court ruled that, under appropriate circumstances, capital punishment may constitutionally be imposed.
Since the decision there have been more than 1, executions, a majority of these taking place in three states: Texas, Virginia, and Oklahoma.
In , the country had the fifth-highest number of executions in the world, following China, Iran , Pakistan and Saudi Arabia. The United States has the highest documented incarceration rate and largest prison population in the world.
About 1 in every 35 adult residents in the United States was under some form of correctional supervision in December , the lowest rate observed since Virgin Islands per , people and the lowest was in Puerto Rico per , people.
The United States has a capitalist mixed economy  which is fueled by abundant natural resources and high productivity. The nominal GDP of the U.
The United States is the largest importer of goods and second-largest exporter , though exports per capita are relatively low.
In , the total U. In , the private sector was estimated to constitute Coca-Cola is the most recognized soft drink company in the world.
Chemical products are the leading manufacturing field. The National Mining Association provides data pertaining to coal and minerals that include beryllium , copper , lead , magnesium , zinc , titanium and others.
The country is the primary developer and grower of genetically modified food , representing half of the world's biotech crops.
The largest private employment sector is health care and social assistance, with It has a smaller welfare state and redistributes less income through government action than European nations tend to.
The United States is the only advanced economy that does not guarantee its workers paid vacation  and is one of just a few countries in the world without paid family leave as a legal right, with the others being Papua New Guinea , Suriname and Liberia.
It was fourth in productivity per hour, behind those two countries and the Netherlands. The — global recession significantly affected the United States, with output still below potential according to the Congressional Budget Office.
The United States has been a leader in technological innovation since the late 19th century and scientific research since the midth century. Methods for producing interchangeable parts were developed by the U.
War Department by the Federal Armories during the first half of the 19th century. This technology, along with the establishment of a machine tool industry, enabled the U.
Factory electrification in the early 20th century and introduction of the assembly line and other labor-saving techniques created the system called mass production.
In , Alexander Graham Bell was awarded the first U. Thomas Edison 's research laboratory , one of the first of its kind, developed the phonograph , the first long-lasting light bulb , and the first viable movie camera.
In the early 20th century, the automobile companies of Ransom E. Olds and Henry Ford popularized the assembly line. The Wright brothers , in , made the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight.
The invention of the transistor in the s, a key active component in practically all modern electronics , led to many technological developments and a significant expansion of the U.
These advancements then lead to greater personalization of technology for individual use. In the 21st century, approximately two-thirds of research and development funding comes from the private sector.
Americans have the highest average household and employee income among OECD nations, and in had the second-highest median household income.
After years of stagnant growth, in , according to the Census, median household income reached a record high after two consecutive years of record growth, although income inequality remains at record highs with top fifth of earners taking home more than half of all overall income.
This is largely because at-risk workers get almost no government support and are further set back by a very weak collective bargaining system.
Assets owned by Americans lost about a quarter of their value. There were about , sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons in the U.
In , the region with the lowest poverty rate was New Hampshire 7. The civil airline industry is entirely privately owned and has been largely deregulated since , while most major airports are publicly owned.
The United States energy market is about 29, terawatt hours per year. The remainder was supplied by nuclear power and renewable energy sources.
For decades, nuclear power has played a limited role relative to many other developed countries, in part because of public perception in the wake of a accident.
In , several applications for new nuclear plants were filed. Issues that affect water supply in the United States include droughts in the West, water scarcity , pollution , a backlog of investment, concerns about the affordability of water for the poorest, and a rapidly retiring workforce.
Increased variability and intensity of rainfall as a result of climate change is expected to produce both more severe droughts and flooding, with potentially serious consequences for water supply and for pollution from combined sewer overflows.
The United States is home to many cultures and a wide variety of ethnic groups, traditions, and values.
Core American culture was established by Protestant British colonists and shaped by the frontier settlement process, with the traits derived passed down to descendants and transmitted to immigrants through assimilation.
Americans have traditionally been characterized by a strong work ethic , competitiveness, and individualism,  as well as a unifying belief in an "American creed " emphasizing liberty, equality, private property, democracy, rule of law, and a preference for limited government.
According to a British study, Americans gave 1. The American Dream , or the perception that Americans enjoy high social mobility , plays a key role in attracting immigrants.
Mainstream American cuisine is similar to that in other Western countries. Wheat is the primary cereal grain with about three-quarters of grain products made of wheat flour  and many dishes use indigenous ingredients, such as turkey, venison, potatoes, sweet potatoes, corn, squash, and maple syrup which were consumed by Native Americans and early European settlers.
Characteristic dishes such as apple pie, fried chicken, pizza, hamburgers, and hot dogs derive from the recipes of various immigrants.
French fries, Mexican dishes such as burritos and tacos, and pasta dishes freely adapted from Italian sources are widely consumed. American eating habits owe a great deal to that of their British culinary roots with some variations.
Although American lands could grow newer vegetables that Britain could not, most colonists would not eat these new foods until accepted by Europeans.
Hess stated in The American fast food industry, the world's largest,  pioneered the drive-through format in the s.
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